Diabetes, Lipids and Metabolism Laboratory


January 09, 2019

Fructosuria and recurrent hypoglycemia in a patient with a novel c.1693T>A variant in the 3' untranslated region of the aldolase B gene

Morales-Alvarez MC, Ricardo-Silgado ML, Lemus HN, González-Devia D, Mendivil CO

Hereditary fructose intolerance, caused by mutations in the ALDOB gene, is an unusual cause of hypoglycemia. ALDOB encodes the enzyme aldolase B, responsible for the hydrolysis of fructose 1-phosphate in the liver. Here, we report the case of a 33-year-old female patient who consulted due to repetitive episodes of weakness, dizziness and headache after food ingestion. An ambulatory 72-h continuous glucose monitoring revealed multiple short hypoglycemic episodes over the day. After biochemical exclusion of other endocrine causes of hypoglycemia, hereditary fructose intolerance seemed a plausible diagnosis. Repeated measurements of urinary fructose revealed pathologic fructosuria, but genetic testing for the three most common mutations in ALDOB resulted negative. We decided to perform complete Sanger sequencing of the ALDOB gene and encountered a variant consisting of a T>A substitution in position 1963 of the ALDOB transcript (c.1693T>A). This position is located within the 3' untranslated region of exon 9, 515 nucleotides downstream the stop codon. After complete withdrawal of dietary fructose and sucrose, the patient presented no new hypoglycemic episodes

June 12, 2018


Valencia-Enciso N, Mendivil CO

Disorders of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism play a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Despite the widespread use of efficacious lipid-modifying therapies, the residual risk of CVD remains unacceptably high. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the application of new technologies in the treatment of lipid disorders. New therapies work mostly at the gene expression level and are, therefore, different from traditional small-molecule drugs that work mainly by inhibiting already synthesized proteins. We will briefly lay out the function of the gene products targeted by the new agents. Then, we will organize our review of new biotechnological treatments by the molecular approach, namely: monoclonal antibodies, antisense oligonucleotides, small-interfering RNAs, and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9)-based genome editing. The paper concludes with the description of the current clinical studies and the perspectives for the use of these agents.

March 31, 2018

Post-Liver Transplantation Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Relevance and Approach to Treatment

Peláez-Jaramillo MJ, Cárdenas-Mojica AA, Gaete PV, Mendivil CO

Post-liver transplantation diabetes mellitus (PLTDM) develops in up to 30% of liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased risk of mortality and multiple morbid outcomes. PLTDM is a multicausal disorder, but the main risk factor is the use of immunosuppressive agents of the calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) family (tacrolimus and cyclosporine). Additional factors, such as pre-transplant overweight, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatitis C virus infection, may further increase risk of developing PLTDM. A diagnosis of PLTDM should be established only after doses of CNI and steroids are stable and the post-operative stress has been overcome. The predominant defect induced by CNI is insulin secretory dysfunction. Plasma glucose control must start immediately after the transplant procedure in order to improve long-term results for both patient and transplant. Among the better known antidiabetics, metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors have a particularly benign profile in the PLTDM context and are the preferred oral agents for long-term management. Insulin therapy is also an effective approach that addresses the prevailing pathophysiological defect of the disorder. There is still insufficient evidence about the impact of newer families of antidiabetics (GLP-1 agonists, SGLT-2 inhibitors) on PLTDM. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, course of disease and medical management of PLTDM

January 31, 2018

Plasma Levels of Myonectin But Not Myostatin or Fibroblast-Derived Growth Factor 21 Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in Adult Humans without Diabetes Mellitus

​FJK Toloza, MC Pérez-Matos, ML Ricardo-Silgado, MC Morales-Álvarez, JO Mantilla-Rivas, JA Pinzón-Cortés, M Pérez-Mayorga, ML Arévalo-García, G Tolosa-González, CO Mendivil

Background: Myokines are a group of protein mediators produced by skeletal muscle under stress or physical exertion. Even though their discovery and effects in cell culture and animal models of disease have elicited great enthusiasm, very little is known about their role in human metabolism. We assessed whether plasma concentrations of three known myokines [myonectin, myostatin, and fibroblast-derived growth factor 21 (FGF-21)] would be associated with direct and indirect indicators of insulin resistance (IR) in individuals who did not have a diagnosis of diabetes.


Methods: We studied 81 adults of both sexes comprising a wide range of body adiposity and insulin sensitivity. All participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment and a 5-point oral glucose tolerance test with calculation of multiple IR and insulin sensitivity indices. Twenty-one of them additionally underwent a hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamp with determination of steady-state whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (“M”). We compared plasma myokine concentrations across quartiles of IR indices and clinical IR surrogates, and explored the correlation of each myokine with the M-value.


Results: Plasma myonectin levels increased monotonically across quartiles of the incremental area under the insulin curve (higher values indicate more IR) (p-trend = 0.021) and decreased monotonically across quartiles of the insulin sensitivity index (ISI – higher values indicate less IR) (p-trend = 0.012). After multivariate adjustment for other relevant determinants of IR (body mass index, age, and sex), the negative association of myonectin with ISI persisted (standardized beta = −0.235, p = 0.023). Myostatin was not associated with any clinical IR indicator or direct IR index measure. In multivariate analyses, FGF-21 showed a trend toward a positive correlation with glucose disposal that did not reach statistical significance (standardized beta = 0.476, p = 0.091).


Conclusion: The secretion of myonectin may constitute an attempt at a compensatory mechanism against IR in humans.

November 27, 2017

The Phospholipid Linoleoylglycerophosphocholine as a Biomarker of Directly Measured Insulin Resistance

Pérez-Matos MC, Morales-Álvarez MC, Toloza FJK, Ricardo-Silgado ML, Mantilla-Rivas JO, Pinzón-Cortes JA, Perez-Mayorga M, Jiménez E, Guevara E, Mendivil CO.



Plasma concentrations of some lysophospholipids correlate with metabolic alterations in humans, but their potential as biomarkers of insulin resistance (IR) is insufficiently known. We aimed to explore the association between plasma linoleoylglycerophosphocholine (LGPC) and objective measures of IR in adults with different metabolic profiles.



We studied 62 men and women, ages 30 to 69 years, (29% normal weight, 59% overweight, 12% obese). Participants underwent a 5-point oral glucose tolerance test (5p-OGTT) from which we calculated multiple indices of IR and insulin secretion. Fifteen participants additionally underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp for estimation of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Plasma LGPC was determined using high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Plasma LGPC was compared across quartiles defined by the IR indices.



Mean LGPC was 15.4±7.6 ng/mL in women and 14.1±7.3 ng/mL in men. LGPC did not correlate with body mass in-dex, percent body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, log-triglycerides, or high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma LGPC concentrations was not systematically associated with any of the studied 5p-OGTT-derived IR indices. However, LGPC exhibited a significant negative correlation with glucose disposal in the clamp (Spearman r=−0.56, P=0.029). Despite not being diabetic, participants with higher plasma LGPC exhibited significantly higher post-challenge plasma glucose excursions in the 5p-OGTT (P trend=0.021 for the increase in glucose area under the curve across quartiles of plasma LGPC).



In our sample of Latino adults without known diabetes, LGPC showed potential as a biomarker of IR and impaired glucose metabolism.



Adiposity; Biomarkers; Insulin resistance; Lipids; Obesity; Phospholipid

June 05, 2017

Comparison of Plasma Pigment Epithelium-Derived Factor (PEDF), Retinol Binding Protein 4 (RBP-4), Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1 (YKL-40) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) for the Identification of Insulin Resistance

FJK Toloza, MC Pérez-Matos, ML Ricardo-Silgado, MC Morales-Álvarez, JO Mantilla-Rivas, JA Pinzón-Cortés, M Pérez-Mayorga, ML Arévalo-García, G Tolosa-González, CO Mendivil



To evaluate and compare the association of four potential insulin resistance (IR) biomarkers (pigment-epithelium-derived factor [PEDF], retinol-binding-protein-4 [RBP-4], chitinase-3-like protein 1 [YKL-40] and brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]) with objective measures of IR.


We studied 81 subjects with different metabolic profiles. All participants underwent a 5-point OGTT with calculation of multiple IR indexes. A subgroup of 21 participants additionally underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. IR was defined as belonging to the highest quartile of incremental area under the insulin curve (iAUCins), or to the lowest quartile of the insulin sensitivity index (ISI).


PEDF was associated with adiposity variables. PEDF and RBP4 increased linearly across quartiles of iAUCins (for PEDF p-trend = 0.029; for RBP-4 p-trend = 0.053). YKL-40 and BDNF were not associated with any adiposity or IR variable. PEDF and RBP-4 levels identified individuals with IR by the iAUCins definition: A PEDF cutoff of 11.9 ng/mL had 60% sensitivity and 68% specificity, while a RBP-4 cutoff of 71.6 ng/mL had 70% sensitivity and 57% specificity. In multiple regression analyses simultaneously including clinical variables and the studied biomarkers, only BMI, PEDF and RBP-4 remained significant predictors of IR.


Plasma PEDF and RBP4 identified IR in subjects with no prior diagnosis of diabetes.

May 08, 2017

Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase and indices of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in nondiabetic adults: a cross-sectional study

Carlos O Mendivil, Freddy JK Toloza, Maria L Ricardo-Silgado, Martha C Morales-Álvarez, Jose O Mantilla-Rivas, Jairo A Pinzón-Cortés, and Hernán N Lemus



Autoimmunity against insulin-producing beta cells from pancreatic islets is a common phenomenon in type 1 diabetes and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Some reports have also related beta-cell autoimmunity to insulin resistance (IR) in type 2 diabetes. However, the extent to which autoimmunity against components of beta cells is present and relates to IR and insulin secretion in nondiabetic adults is uncertain.


To explore the association between antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA), a major antigen from beta cells, and indices of whole-body IR and beta-cell capacity/insulin secretion in adults who do not have diabetes.


We studied 81 adults of both sexes aged 30–70, without known diabetes or any autoimmune disease. Participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with determination of plasma glucose and insulin at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. From these results we calculated indices of insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and incremental area under the insulin curve [iAUCins]) and insulin secretion (corrected insulin response at 30 minutes and HOMA beta-cell%). GADAs were measured in fasting plasma using immunoenzymatic methods.


We found an overall prevalence of GADA positivity of 21.3%, without differences by sex and no correlation with age. GADA titers did not change monotonically across quartiles of any of the IR or insulin secretion indices studies. GADA did not correlate linearly with fasting IR expressed as HOMA-IR (Spearman’s r=−0.18, p=0.10) or postabsorptive IR expressed as iAUCins (r=−0.15, p=0.18), but did show a trend toward a negative correlation with insulin secretory capacity expressed by the HOMA-beta cell% index (r=−0.20, p=0.07). Hemoglobin A1c, body mass index, and waist circumference were not associated with GADA titers.


GADA positivity is frequent and likely related to impaired beta-cell function among adults without known diabetes.

May 11, 2016

Depression and microvascular complications predict poor goal achievement among Colombian patients with type 2 diabetes

Catalina Sanmiguel, Maria C. Luna, William Kattah, Carlos O. Mendivil


Aims: Many patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Latin American countries remain insufficiently controlled. We aimed to identify factors associated with persistent poor metabolic control in Colombian patients with DM2.

Methods: Retrospective one-year follow-up cohort study of adult patients with DM2. The primary outcome was persistent poor metabolic control (PPMC): HbA1c level >8% in all measurements during follow-up. Secondary outcomes were intermittent poor metabolic control (IPMC) and good control (GC: simultaneous achievement of HbA1c, blood pressure and LDL cholesterol goals). Multiple demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were predictors in multivariable logistical models.

Results: Of 399 patients included, 50 had the primary endpoint during follow-up. Older age was negatively associated with PPMC (OR 0.40, 95%CI 0.17-0.92 for extreme quartiles), even after multivariate adjustment. Depression and the presence of multiple microvascular complications were strongly associated with the secondary endpoint IPMC (multivariate OR respectively 4.2, 95%CI 1.08-16.4 for depression; 5.61, 95%CI 1.03-30.6 for microvascular complications). Being unemployed was associated with significantly less odds of achieving GC (multivariate OR 0.19, 95%CI 0.04-0.95).

Conclusions: Age, depression, the presence of microvascular complications and employment status were associated with the success or failure of diabetes management. These factors were better correlates of therapeutic success than the pharmacological agent employed.

January 16, 2017

Lipids: A Suitable Therapeutic Target in Diabetic Neuropathy?

Perez-Matos MC, Morales-Alvarez MC, Mendivil CO.



Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) encompasses multiple syndromes with a common pathogenesis. Glycemic control shows a limited correlation with DPN, arguing in favor of major involvement of other factors, one of which is alterations of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Consistent associations have been found between plasma triglycerides/remnant lipoproteins and the risk of DPN. Studies in cultured nerve tissue or in murine models of diabetes have unveiled mechanisms linking lipid metabolism to DPN. Deficient insulin action increases fatty acids flux to nerve cells, inducing mitochondrial dysfunction, anomalous protein kinase C signaling, and perturbations in the physicochemical properties of the plasma membrane. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins bind to cellular receptors and promote generation of reactive oxygen species, worsening mitochondrial function and altering the electrical properties of neurons. Supplementation with specific fatty acids has led to prevention or reversal of different modalities of DPN in animal models. Post hoc and secondary analyses of clinical trials have found benefits of cholesterol reducing (statins and ezetimibe), triglyceride-reducing (fibrates), or lipid antioxidant (thioctic acid) therapies over the progression and severity of DPN. However, these findings are mostly hypothesis-generating. Randomized trials are warranted in which the impact of intensive plasma lipids normalization on DPN outcomes is specifically evaluated.

April 01, 2016

Multiple apolipoprotein kinetics measured in human HDL by high-resolution/accurate mass parallel reaction monitoring

Singh SAAndraski ABPieper BGoh WMendivil COSacks FMAikawa M.



Endogenous labeling with stable isotopes is used to study the metabolism of proteins in vivo. However, traditional detection methods such as GC/MS cannot measure tracer enrichment in multiple proteins simultaneously, and multiple reaction monitoring MS cannot measure precisely the low tracer enrichment in slowly turning-over proteins as in HDL. We exploited the versatility of the high-resolution/accurate mass (HR/AM) quadrupole Orbitrap for proteomic analysis of five HDL sizes. We identified 58 proteins in HDL that were shared among three humans and that were organized into five subproteomes according to HDL size. For seven of these proteins, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoA-IV, apoC-III, apoD, apoE, and apoM, we performed parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) to measure trideuterated leucine tracer enrichment between 0.03 to 1.0% in vivo, as required to study their metabolism. The results were suitable for multicompartmental modeling in all except apoD. These apolipoproteins in each HDL size mainly originated directly from the source compartment, presumably the liver and intestine. Flux of apolipoproteins from smaller to larger HDL or the reverse contributed only slightly to apolipoprotein metabolism. These novel findings on HDL apolipoprotein metabolism demonstrate the analytical breadth and scope of the HR/AM-PRM technology to perform metabolic research.

Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

January 12, 2016

Novel Pathways of Apolipoprotein A-I Metabolism in High-Density Lipoprotein of Different Sizes in Humans

Mendivil COFurtado JMorton AMWang LSacks FM.



A prevailing concept is that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is secreted into the systemic circulation as a small mainly discoidal particle, which expands progressively and becomes spherical by uptake and esterification of cellular cholesterol and then contracts by cholesterol ester delivery to the liver, a process known as reverse cholesterol transport, thought to be impaired in people with low HDL cholesterol (HDLc). This metabolic framework has not been established in humans.


We studied the metabolism of apolipoprotein A-I in 4 standard HDL sizes by endogenous isotopic labeling in 6 overweight adults with low HDLc and in 6 adults with normal body weight with high plasma HDLc. Contrary to expectation, HDL was secreted into the circulation in its entire size distribution from very small to very large similarly in both groups. Very small (prebeta) HDL comprised only 8% of total apolipoprotein A-I secretion. Each HDL subfraction circulated mostly within its secreted size range for 1 to 4 days and then was cleared. Enlargement of very small and medium to large and very large HDL and generation of very small from medium HDL were minor metabolic pathways. Prebeta HDL was cleared slower, whereas medium, large, and very large HDL were cleared faster in the low HDLc group.


A new model is proposed from these results in which HDL is metabolized in plasma mainly within several discrete, stable sizes across the common range of HDLc concentrations.

© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

January 20, 2016

Neuropad for the detection of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes

Mendivil CO, Kattah W, Orduz A, Tique C, Cárdenas JL, Patiño JE



Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a prevalent and neglected chronic complication of diabetes, with a large impact on morbidity and mortality. Part of the reason why it is not detected and treated opportunely is because of the complexity of the tests required for its diagnosis. We evaluated the Neuropad®, a test based on sudomotor function, as a screening tool for CAN in adult patients with type 2 diabetes in Bogotá, Colombia.


This was a cross-sectional evaluation of Neuropad® for the detection of CAN. Patients were 20-75years of age and did not suffer from any other type of neuropathy. CAN was diagnosed using the Ewing battery of tests for R-R variability during deep breathing, Valsalva and lying-to-standing maneuvers. Additionally, distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) was diagnosed using a sign-based scale (Michigan Neuropathy Disability Score - NDS) and a symptom-based score (Total Symptom Score - TSS). The primary outcome was the sensitivity and specificity of the Neuropad® for the diagnosis of CAN, and secondary outcomes were the sensitivity and specificity of Neuropad® for DSP.


We studied 154 patients (74 men and 80 women). Prevalence of CAN was extremely high (68.0% of study participants), but also DSP was prevalent, particularly according to the signs-based definition (45%). The sensitivity of the Neuropad® for any degree of CAN was 70.1%, being slightly higher for the deep breathing and Valsalva tests than for lying-to-standing. The specificity of the Neuropad® for any type of CAN was only 37.0%, as expected for a screening exam. The negative predictive value was higher for the deep breathing and Valsalva tests (69.4 and 81.6%, respectively). Neuropad showed also a good sensitivity and negative predictive value for DSP. The sensitivity and specificity of Neuropad were better among men, and among patients with diabetes duration above the group median.


The Neuropad is a simple and inexpensive device that demonstrated an adequate performance as a screening tool for cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in Latin American patients with DM2.


Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

May 13, 2015

Adenosine triphosphate citrate lyase: Emerging target in the treatment of dyslipidemia

Lemus HNMendivil CO.


Despite major advances in pharmacologic therapy over the last few decades, dyslipidemia remains a prevalent, insufficiently recognized, and undercontrolled risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Statins are the mainstay of hypercholesterolemia treatment, but because of adherence and tolerability issues that limit dose titration, there is a need for additional therapies with good efficacy and better tolerability. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) citrate lyase, a cytoplasmic enzyme responsible for the generation of acetyl coenzyme A for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, is a very interesting molecular target for the reduction of plasma lipids. Furthermore, ATP citrate lyase inhibition may be accompanied by activation of 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, a key signaling molecule that acts a central hub in cellular metabolic regulation. ETC-1002 is a small molecule inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase that also activates 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, effectively reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and inducing some other positive metabolic changes. Recent evidence from phase I and II clinical trials in humans has shown a positive efficacy and safety profile of ETC-1002, with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reductions similar to those attainable by usual doses of many statins and with no major apparent side effects. These results potentially introduce a new family of medications that may expand our therapeutic arsenal against hypercholesterolemia.

Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

April 14, 2015

Metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines in the alveolar lining fluid of healthy adults: compartmentalization and physiological correlates

Mendivil COKoziel HBrain JD.



Our current understanding of hormone regulation in lung parenchyma is quite limited. We aimed to quantify a diverse array of biologically relevant protein mediators in alveolar lining fluid (ALF), compared to serum concentrations, and explore factors associated with protein compartmentalization on either side of the air-blood barrier.


Participants were 24 healthy adult non-smoker volunteers without respiratory symptoms or significant medical conditions, with normal lung exams and office spirometry. Cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were analyzed for 24 proteins (including enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines) using a highly sensitive multiplex ELISA. Measurements were normalized to ALF concentrations. The ALF:serum concentration ratios were examined in relation to measures of protein size, hydrophobicity, charge, and to participant clinical and spirometric values.


ALF measurements from 24 individuals detected 19 proteins, including adiponectin, adipsin, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, C-reactive protein, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon, insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, and visfatin. C-peptide and serpin E1 were not detected in ALF for any individual, and IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were not detected in either ALF or serum for any individual. In general, ALF levels were similar or lower in concentration for most proteins compared to serum. However, ghrelin, resistin, insulin, visfatin and GLP-1 had ALF concentrations significantly higher compared to serum. Importantly, elevated ALF:serum ratios of ghrelin, visfatin and resistin correlated with protein net charge and isoelectric point, but not with molecular weight or hydrophobicity.


Biologically relevant enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines can be detected in the ALF of healthy individuals. For the proteins measured, charge may influence trafficking and compartmentalization to the alveolar airspace more than molecular weight or hydrophobicity. These data may have implications for homeostasis and drug delivery to the lung.

September 09, 2014

Comparative effectiveness of vildagliptin in combination with other oral anti-diabetes agents in usual-care conditions: the EDGE-Latin America study

Mendivil CO, Márquez-Rodríguez E, Angel ID, Paz G, Rodríguez C, Almada J, Szyskowsky O.



To assess the proportion of patients on vildagliptin add-on dual therapy who respond to treatment over a 12 month follow-up, relative to comparator oral anti-diabetes dual therapy, in a usual care setting.


Participants were patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) aged 18 years and older from 311 centers in Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Venezuela. Patients were taking monotherapy with an oral anti-diabetes drug (OAD), and were prescribed a new add-on OAD based on the judgment of their personal physician. According to this choice, patients were assigned to one of the two cohorts: vildagliptin or comparator OADs.


The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving an A1c drop >0.3% without edema, hypoglycemia, weight gain or discontinuation due to gastrointestinal (GI) events. The secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients with baseline A1c ≥7% who reached the goal of an A1c <7% without hypoglycemia or weight gain.


The per-protocol population (a subset of the intention-to-treat population that excluded patients with pre-specified protocol deviations) comprised 3773 patients, 3002 in the vildagliptin cohort and 771 in the comparator cohort. The proportion of patients reaching the primary endpoint was higher in the vildagliptin cohort (60.3%) than the comparator cohort (50.7%), OR 1.48 (95% CI: 1.25-1.73). The same was observed for the secondary endpoint (44.8 versus 33.1%) OR 1.64 (95% CI: 1.37-1.98). The incidence of adverse events was low and similar between treatment cohorts.


In a usual care setting, patients treated with a vildagliptin combination succeeded in lowering A1c to <7%, without weight gain, hypoglycemia or peripheral edema more often than patients treated with comparator combinations, without increased risk of adverse events. Key limitations are the observational nature of the study and its relatively limited 12 month timeframe.

July 18, 2013

Young Hispanics at risk of type 2 diabetes display endothelial activation, subclinical inflammation and alterations of coagulation and fibrinolysis

Mendivil CO, Robles-Osorio L, Horton ES, Hamdy O, Caballero AE.



Hispanics have a high rate of diabetes that exposes them to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that many of the pathophysiological mechanisms that cause atherosclerotic disease may be present in young Hispanics who do not have clinical diabetes but are at increased risk of developing it.


We studied 36 young Hispanic adults without diabetes (ages 18-40). Seventeen participants were at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes given by overweight and a family history of diabetes on one or both parents (at risk group). Nineteen participants with normal body-mass index and no parental history of diabetes constituted the control group. We measured and compared plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction, disturbed coagulation and fibrinolysis, subclinical inflammation and adipose tissue dysfunction in the at risk and control groups.


Participants at risk of diabetes were more insulin-resistant according to different indicators, and had significantly higher levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), inhibitor of plasminogen activator-1 (PAi-1), high sensitivity C-reactive protein and free fatty acids, signaling the presence of multiple proatherogenic alterations despite the absence of overt diabetes. Levels of the prothrombotic molecule PAi-1 were most elevated in participants who were not only at risk of diabetes by the study definition, but also abdominally obese.


Young adult Hispanics at risk of type 2 diabetes but without overt disease already bear considerably high levels of markers reflecting processes that lead to the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

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e-mail: cmendivi@uniandes.edu.co


Universidad de los Andes | Vigilada Mineducación

Reconocimiento como Universidad: Decreto 1297 del 30 de mayo de 1964.

Reconocimiento personería jurídica: Resolución 28 del 23 de febrero de 1949 Minjusticia.